Objectification in women's daily lives Study 1

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Citation article

Title:
Sexual objectification in women's daily lives: A smartphone ecological momentary assessment study
Authors:
Holland, E., Koval, P., Stratemeyer, M., Thompson, F., Haslam, N.
Year of publication:
2017
Journal name:
British Journal of Social Psychology
Volume number:
56
Issue number:
2
Page numbers:
314-333
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12152

Measure details

Baseline session:
Yes
Followup session:
No
Study design:
Baseline questionnaires completed in the lab on Day 1 followed by 1 week of ESM surveys tracking the occurrence of objectifying events in daily lives of young women.
ESM measurement waves:
1
Ethics granting body:
Australian Catholic University
Ethics protocol number:
2015-94R

Study details

Location:
Australia
Background information:
Study asked women to reflect on daily instances of self-objectification and objectifying events perpetrated by others. Subset of participants were also given an iPhone or iPod device to use with the EAR app while completing ESM over the following week
Language:
English
Setting:
IP
Collection platform:
SEMA2
Days of ESM data collection:
7
Number of ESM measures per day:
10
Sampling schedule:
Stratified random interval
ESM schedule start time:
10:00
ESM schedule end time:
0:00
ESM schedule duration:
14

Sample details

Type of sample:
---
Recruitment information:
Participants were recruited through advertisements posted around university buildings and via social media (e.g., Facebook, Gumtree).
Incentives:
Participants received AU$30 plus up to an additional AU$20, contingent on EMA compliance, with maximum reimbursement for completing ≥85% of EMA surveys.
Exclusions:
1 withdrew consent

Contact info

Contact:
Peter Koval
Contact email:
p.koval@unimelb.edu.au
Selection Variable Info Assessment type Constructs
ESM_RT ESM survey response time (ms) ESM
ANG At the moment, how ANGRY do you feel? ESM AFFECT ANGER NEGATIVE_AFFECT
SAD At the moment, how SAD do you feel? ESM AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT SADNESS
GUIL At the moment, how GUILTY do you feel? ESM AFFECT GUILT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
ANX At the moment, how ANXIOUS do you feel? ESM AFFECT ANXIETY NEGATIVE_AFFECT
HAP At the moment, how HAPPY do you feel? ESM AFFECT HAPPINESS POSITIVE_AFFECT
SELFC At the moment, how SELF-CONSCIOUS do you feel? ESM AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT SELF
RLX At the moment, how RELAXED do you feel? ESM AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT RELAXATION
COMP At the moment, how COMPETENT do you feel? ESM SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CONF At the moment, how CONFIDENT do you feel? ESM AFFECT CONFIDENCE POSITIVE_AFFECT
SELF_OBJ_1 Since the last survey, have you been thinking about HOW YOU LOOK TO OTHER PEOPLE? ESM SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBJ_TARGET_1 Catcalling, wolf-whistling, or car honking ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_2 Sexual remark made about body ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_3 Touch/fondled against will ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_4 Body looked at sexually ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_5 Degrading sexual gesture ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_6 Other sexist behaviour not listed above ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_7 None of the above ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
SOQ_W_9 Physical fitness level Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
RE_4 I sometimes avoid eating in an attempt to control my weight Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
OBJ_WITNESS_1 Catcalling, wolf-whistling, or car honking ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_2 Sexual remark made about body ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_3 Touch/fondled against will ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_4 Body looked at sexually ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_5 Degrading sexual gesture ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_6 Media image/video ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_7 Other sexist behaviour not listed above ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_8 None of the above ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
SOQ_1 Physical coordination Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_2 PHYSICAL_HEALTH Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_3 Weight Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_4 Strength Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_5 Sex appeal Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_6 Physical attractiveness Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_7 Energy level (e.g., stamina) Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_8 Firm/sculpted muscles Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_9 Physical fitness level Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_10 Measurements (e.g., chest, waist, hips) Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_1 Physical coordination Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_2 PHYSICAL_HEALTH Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_3 Weight Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_4 Strength Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_5 Sex appeal Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_6 Physical attractiveness Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_7 Energy level (e.g., stamina) Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_8 Firm/sculpted muscles Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_9 Physical fitness level Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_M_10 Measurements (e.g., chest, waist, hips) Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_1 Physical coordination Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_2 PHYSICAL_HEALTH Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_3 Weight Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_4 Strength Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_5 Sex appeal Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_6 Physical attractiveness Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_7 Energy level (e.g., stamina) Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_8 Firm/sculpted muscles Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
SOQ_W_10 Measurements (e.g., chest, waist, hips) Baseline ATTITUDES OBJECTIFICATION
CESD_1 I was bothered by things that usually don't bother me Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_2 I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_3 I felt that I could not shake off the blues even with help from my family or friends Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_4 I felt I was just as good as other people Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_5 I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_6 I felt depressed Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_7 I felt that everything I did was an effort Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_8 I felt hopeful about the future Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_9 I thought my life had been a failure Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_10 I felt fearful Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_11 My sleep was restless Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_12 I was happy Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_13 I talked less than usual Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_14 I felt lonely Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_15 People were unfriendly Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_16 I enjoyed life Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_17 I had crying spells Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_18 I felt sad Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_19 I felt that people dislike me Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_20 I could not get "going" Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PANAS_1 attentive Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_2 strong Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_3 irritable Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_4 inspired Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_5 afraid Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_6 alert Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_7 upset Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_8 active Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_9 guilty Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_10 nervous Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_11 excited Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_12 hostile Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_13 proud Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_14 jittery Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_15 ashamed Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_16 scared Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_17 enthusiastic Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_18 distressed Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_19 determined Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_20 interested Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
OBCS_BS_1 When I can't control my weight, I feel like something must be wrong with me Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_2 I feel ashamed of myself when I haven't made the effort to look my best Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_3 I feel like I must be a bad person when I don't look as good as I should Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_4 I would be ashamed for people to know what I really weigh Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_5 I never worry that something is wrong with me when I am not exercising as much as I could Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_6 When I'm not exercising enough, I question whether I am a good enough person Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_7 Even when I can't control my weight, I think I'm an okay person Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_8 When I'm not the size I think I should be, I feel ashamed Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
RE_1 I take small helpings in an effort to control my weight Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RE_2 I hold back at meals in an attempt to prevent weight gain Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RE_3 I limit the amount of food I eat in an effort to control my weight Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RE_5 I skip meals in an effort to control my weight Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RE_6 I eat diet foods in an effort to control my weight Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RE_7 I count calories to try to prevent wait gain Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RE_8 I sometimes eat only one or two meals a day to try to limit my weight Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RE_9 I eat low-calorie foods in an effort to avoid weight gain Baseline EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
RSE_1 On the whole, I am satisfied with myself Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_2 At times, I think I am no good at all Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_3 I feel that I have a number of good qualities Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_4 I am able to do things as well as most other people Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_5 I feel I do not have much to be proud of Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_6 I certainly feel useless at times Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_7 I feel that I'm a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_8 I wish I could have more respect for myself Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_9 All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_10 I take a positive attitude toward myself Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
IRI_1 I daydream and fantasize, with some regularity, about things that might happen to me. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_2 I often have tender, concerned feelings for people less fortunate than me. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_3 I sometimes find it difficult to see things from the "other guy's point of view. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_4 Sometimes I don't feel very sorry for other people when they are having problems. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_5 I really get involved with the feelings of the characters in a novel. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_6 In emergency situations, I feel apprehensive and ill-at-ease. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_7 I am usually objective when I watch a movie or play, and I don't often get completely caught up in it. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_8 I try to look at everybody's side of a disagreement before I make a decision. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_9 When I see someone being taken advantage of, I feel kind of protective towards them. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_10 I sometimes feel helpless when I am in the middle of a very emotional situation. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_11 I sometimes try to understand my friends better by imagining how things look from their perspective. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_12 Becoming extremely involved in a good book or movie is somewhat rare for me. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_13 When I see someone get hurt, I tend to remain calm. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_14 Other people's misfortunes do not usually disturb me a great deal. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_15 If I'm sure I'm right about something, I don't waste much time listening to other people's arguments. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_16 After seeing a play or movie, I have felt as though I were one of the characters. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_17 Being in a tense emotional situation scares me. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_18 When I see someone being treated unfairly, I sometimes don't feel very much pity for them. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_19 I am usually pretty effective in dealing with emergencies. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_20 I am often quite touched by things that I see happen. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_21 I believe that there are two sides to every question and try to look at them both. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_22 I would describe myself as a pretty soft-hearted person. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_23 When I watch a good movie, I can very easily put myself in the place of a leading character. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_24 I tend to lose control during emergencies. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_25 When I'm upset at someone, I usually try to "put myself in his shoes" for a while. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_26 When I am reading an interesting story or novel, I imagine how I would feel if the events in the story were happening to me. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_27 When I see someone who badly needs help in an emergency, I go to pieces. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
IRI_28 Before criticizing somebody, I try to imagine how I would feel if I were in their place. Baseline EMOTION_INTELLIGENCE EMPATHY SOCIAL
BFI_1 ... is talkative Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_2 ... tends to find fault with others Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_3 ... does a thorough job Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_4 ... is depressed, blue Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_5 ... is original, comes up with new ideas Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_6 ... is reserved Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_7 ... is helpful, unselfish with others Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_8 ... can be somewhat careless Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_9 ... is relaxed, handles stress well Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_10 ... is curious about many different things Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_11 ... is full of energy Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_12 ... starts quarrels with others Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_13 ... is a reliable worker Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_14 ... can be tense Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_15 ... is ingenious, a deep thinker Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_16 ... generates a lot of enthusiasm Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_17 ... has a forgiving nature Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_18 ... tends to be disorganized Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_19 ... worries a lot Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_20 ... has an active imagination Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_21 ... tends to be quiet Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_22 ... is generally trusting Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_23 ... tends to be lazy Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_24 ... is emotionally stable, not easily upset Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_25 ... is inventive Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_26 ... has an assertive personality Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_27 ... can be cold and aloof Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_28 ... perseveres until the task is finished Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_29 ... can be moody Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_30 ... values artistic, aesthetic experiences Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_31 ... is sometimes shy, inhibited Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_32 ... is considerate and kind to almost everyone Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_33 ... does things efficiently Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_34 ... remains calm in tense situations Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_35 ... prefers work that is routine Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_36 ... is outgoing, sociable Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
BFI_37 ... is sometimes rude to others Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_38 ... makes plans and follows through with them Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_39 ... gets nervous easily Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
BFI_40 ... likes to reflect, play with ideas Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_41 ... has few artistic interests Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_42 ... likes to cooperate with others Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
BFI_43 ... is easily distracted Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
BFI_44 ... is sophisticated in art, music, or literature Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
AGE How old are you? Baseline AGE DEMOGRAPHICS
SEXUALITY What is your sexual orientation? Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS SEXUAL
RACE_1 White/Caucasian Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_2 Asian Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_3 South Asian Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_4 Middle Eastern Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_5 Other (please specify) Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RELAT What is your relationship status? Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS RELATIONSHIP