Objectification in women's daily lives Study 2

Previous Next

Citation article

Title:
How does it feel to be treated like an object? Direct and indirect effects of exposure to sexual objectification on women’s emotions in daily life.
Authors:
Koval, P., Holland, E., Zyphur, M. J., Stratemeyer, M., Knight, J. M., Bailen, N. H., Haslam, N.
Year of publication:
2019
Journal name:
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Volume number:
116
Issue number:
6
Page numbers:
885-898
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1037/pspa0000161

Measure details

Baseline session:
Yes
Followup session:
No
Study design:
Baseline questionnaires completed in the lab on Day 1, followed by 5 days of ESM surveys. Data collected in Melbourne with identical methods as Objectification Study 3, which was collected in St Louis, MO (USA). Assesses women's experiences of sexual objectification in daily life.
ESM measurement waves:
1
Ethics granting body:
University of Melbourne and Australian Catholic University
Ethics protocol number:
1543665.3

Study details

Location:
Australia
Background information:
Women only. Participants reported on exposure to sexually objectifying events, levels of state self-objectification and momentary experiences of positive, negative and self conscious emotions.
Language:
English
Setting:
IP
Collection platform:
SEMA2
Days of ESM data collection:
5
Number of ESM measures per day:
14
Sampling schedule:
Stratified random interval
ESM schedule start time:
10:00
ESM schedule end time:
0:00
ESM schedule duration:
14

Sample details

Type of sample:
---
Recruitment information:
Recruited via advertisements posted online and around university campuses in Melbourne, Australia.
Incentives:
Participants received a $50 gift card. Additionally, participants that completed 50% of their scheduled surveys were entered into a raffle to win 10 additional $50 gift cards.
Exclusions:
1 removed due to low EMA compliance, 2 removed because these participants had also previously participated in Objectification S1 (data set 6)

Contact info

Contact:
Peter Koval
Contact email:
p.koval@unimelb.edu.au
Selection Variable Info Assessment type Constructs
ESM_RT ESM survey response time (ms) ESM
CLARITY Right now, how clear are you about your feelings? ESM AFFECT CLARITY
ANG Right now, how angry do you feel? ESM AFFECT ANGER NEGATIVE_AFFECT
SAD Right now, how sad do you feel? ESM AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT SADNESS
GUIL Right now, how guilty do you feel? ESM AFFECT GUILT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
ANX Right now, how anxious do you feel? ESM AFFECT ANXIETY NEGATIVE_AFFECT
HAP Right now, how happy do you feel? ESM AFFECT HAPPINESS POSITIVE_AFFECT
CONF Right now, how confident do you feel? ESM AFFECT CONFIDENCE POSITIVE_AFFECT
FEAR Right now, how afraid do you feel? ESM AFFECT FEAR NEGATIVE_AFFECT
EMB Right now, how embarrassed do you feel? ESM AFFECT EMBARRASSMENT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
SHAM Right now, how ashamed do you feel? ESM AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT SHAME
META_EMOTION Do you think your current emotions are bad or inappropriate? ESM ACCEPTANCE EMOTION_REGULATION STRATEGY
SELF_OBJ_1 Since the last survey, have you been thinking about you look to other people? ESM SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
SELF_OBJ_2 Since the last survey, have you felt self-conscious about your appearance? ESM SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
SELF_OBJ_3 Since the last survey, have you been worried about whether your clothes make you look good? ESM SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
EDE-Q_1 Eaten an unusually large amount of food ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
EDE-Q_2 Had a sense of lost control over your eating ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
EDE-Q_3 Purposely made yourself sick (vomited) ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
EDE-Q_4 Used laxatives, diet pills, or diuretics ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
EDE-Q_5 Exercised in a "driven" or "compulsive" way ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
EDE-Q_6 Tried to limit the amount of food you ate ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
EDE-Q_7 Purposely gone without eating anything at all ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
EDE-Q_8 None of the above ESM EATING PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
SOCINT Since the last survey, who have you spent the most time with? ESM EVENT SOCIAL SOCIAL_INTERACTION
OBJ_TARGET_1 Catcalling, wolf-whistling, or car honking ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_2 Sexual remarks made about body ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_3 Touch/ fondled against will ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_4 Body looked at sexually ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_5 Degrading sexual gesture ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_6 Other ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_7 None ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_TARGET_8 If you were targeted, where did this take place? ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_9 If you witnessed objectification, where did this take place? ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
STR Since last survey, have you experienced any other stressors / hassles? ESM EVENT SITUATION_CONTEXT STRESS
TIPI_1 Extraverted, enthusiastic Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
TIPI_2 Critical, quarrelsome Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_3 Dependable, self-disciplined Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_4 Anxious, easily upset Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
TIPI_5 Open to new experiences, complex Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_6 Reserved, quiet Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
TIPI_7 Sympathetic, warm Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_8 Disorganised, careless Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_9 Calm, emotionally stable Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
TIPI_10 Conventional, uncreative Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
ASI_1 Women exaggerate problems at work Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
ASI_2 Women are too easily offended Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_3 Most women interpret innocent remarks as sexist Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_4 When women lose fairly, they claim discrimination Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_5 Women seek special favors under the guise of equality Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_6 Feminists are making reasonable demands Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_7 Feminists are not seeking more power than men Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_8 Women seek power by gaining control over men Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_9 Few women tease men sexually Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_10 Once a man commits, she puts him on a tight leash Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_11 Women fail to appreciate all men do for them Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_12 A good woman should be set on a pedestal Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_13 Women should be cherished and protected by men Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_14 Men should sacrifice to provide for women Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_15 In a disaster, women need not be rescued first Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_16 Women have a superior moral sensibility Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_17 Women have a quality of purity few men possess Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_18 Women have a more refined sense of culture and taste Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_19 Every man ought to have a woman he adores Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_20 Men are complete without women Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_21 Despite accomplishment, men are incomplete without women Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
ASI_22 People are often happy without heterosexual romance Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
PANAS_1 attentive Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_2 strong Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_3 irritable Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_4 inspired Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_5 afraid Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_6 alert Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_7 upset Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_8 active Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_9 guilty Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_10 nervous Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_11 excited Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_12 hostile Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_13 proud Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_14 jittery Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_15 ashamed Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_16 scared Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_17 enthusiastic Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_18 distressed Baseline AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_19 determined Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
PANAS_20 interested Baseline AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT
OBCS_BS_1 When I can't control my weight, I feel like something must be wrong with me Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_2 I feel ashamed of myself when I haven't made the effort to look my best Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_3 I feel like I must be a bad person when I don't look as good as I should Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_4 I would be ashamed for people to know what I really weigh Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_5 I never worry that something is wrong with me when I am not exercising as much as I could Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_6 When I'm not exercising enough, I question whether I am a good enough person Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_7 Even when I can't control my weight, I think I'm an okay person Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_BS_8 When I'm not the size I think I should be, I feel ashamed Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION SHAME
OBCS_SS_1 I rarely think about how I look. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBCS_SS_2 I think it is more important that my clothes are comfortable than whether they look good on me. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBCS_SS_3 I think more about how my body feels than how my body looks. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBCS_SS_4 I rarely compare how I look with how other people look. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBCS_SS_5 During the day, I think about how I look many times. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBCS_SS_6 I often worry about whether the clothes I am wearing make me look good. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBCS_SS_7 I rarely worry about how I look to other people. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
OBCS_SS_8 I am more concerned with what my body can do than how it looks. Baseline SELF SELF_OBJECTIFICATION
RSE_1 On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_2 At times, I think I am no good at all. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_3 I feel that I have a number of good qualities. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_4 I am able to do things as well as most other people. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_5 I feel I do not have much to be proud of. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_6 I certainly feel useless at times. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_7 I feel that I’m a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_8 I wish I could have more respect for myself. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_9 All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
AWS_1 Swearing and obscenity are more repulsive in the speech of a woman than a man Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_2 Under modern economic conditions with women being active outside the home, men should share in household tasks such as washing dishes and doing laundry. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_3 It is insulting to women to have the “obey” clause remain in the marriage service. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_4 A woman should be free as a man to propose marriage. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_5 Women should worry less about their rights and more about becoming good wives and mothers. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_6 Women should assume their rightful place in business and all the professions along with men. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_7 A woman should not expect to go to exactly the same places or to have quite the same freedom of action as a man. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_8 It is ridiculous for a woman to run a locomotive and for a man to darn socks. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_9 The intellectual leadership of a community should be largely in the hands of men. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_10 Women should be given equal opportunity with men for apprenticeship in the various trades. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_11 Women earning as much as their dates should bear equally the expense when they go out together. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
AWS_12 Sons in a family should be given more encouragement to go to college than daughters. Baseline ATTITUDES SEXISM
CESD_1 I was bothered by things that usually don't bother me Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_2 I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_3 I felt that I could not shake off the blues even with help from my family or friends Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_4 I felt I was just as good as other people Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_5 I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_6 I felt depressed Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_7 I felt that everything I did was an effort Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_8 I felt hopeful about the future Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_9 I thought my life had been a failure Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_10 I felt fearful Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_11 My sleep was restless Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_12 I was happy Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_13 I talked less than usual Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_14 I felt lonely Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_15 People were unfriendly Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_16 I enjoyed life Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_17 I had crying spells Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_18 I felt sad Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_19 I felt that people dislike me Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_20 I could not get "going" Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
FIS_1 Do you consider yourself a feminist? Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
FIS_2 From the following seven statements, click the one that best applies to you. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_1 The freedom that children are given should be determined by their age and maturity level and not by their sex. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_2 Some types of work are just not appropriate for women. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_3 A father’s major responsibility is to provide financially for his children. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_4 Tasks around the house should not be assigned by sex. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_5 Only some types of work are appropriate for both men and women; for example, it is silly for a woman to do construction and for a man to do sewing. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_6 Mothers should make most decisions about how children are brought up. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_7 Men are more sexual than women Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_8 People can be both aggressive and nurturing regardless of sex. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_9 For many important jobs, it is better to choose men instead of women. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_10 People should be treated the same regardless of their sex. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_11 Girls need to be protected and watched over more than boys. Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
SRQ_12 Mothers should work only if necessary Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
ERE-Q_9 We should stop thinking about whether people are male or female and focus on other characteristics Baseline ATTITUDES GENDER
HEIGHT What is your weight at present? (Please give your best estimate in kilos) Baseline PHYSICAL_HEALTH WEIGHT
WEIGHT What is your height? (Please give your best estimate in centimetres, e.g., 160) Baseline HEIGHT PHYSICAL_HEALTH
MENSTR Over the past three-to-four months have you missed any menstrual periods? Baseline PHYSICAL_HEALTH SEXUAL
MENSTR_MISS If so, how many? Baseline PHYSICAL_HEALTH SEXUAL
CONTRA Have you been taking the pill? Baseline MEDICATION PHYSICAL_HEALTH SEXUAL
ESS_1 It is important to me that men are attracted to me. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
ESS_2 I feel proud when men compliment the way I look. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
ESS_3 I want men to look at me. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
ESS_4 I love to feel sexy. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
ESS_5 I like showing off my body. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
ESS_6 I feel complimented when men whistle at me. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
ESS_7 When I wear revealing clothing, I feel sexy and in control. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
ESS_8 I feel empowered when I look beautiful. Baseline OBJECTIFICATION SELF
AGE How old are you? Baseline AGE DEMOGRAPHICS
SEXUALITY_1 What is your sexual orientation? Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS SEXUAL
RACE_1 White/Caucasian Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_2 Asian Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_3 South Asian Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_4 Middle Eastern Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_5 Indigenous Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RACE_6 Black/African Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS ETHNICITY
RELAT What is your relationship status? Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS RELATIONSHIP
CSW_15 I don’t care what other people think of me. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_6 I don’t care if other people have a negative opinion of me. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_30 My self-esteem does not depend on whether or not I look attractive Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_17 My self-esteem is influenced by how attractive I think my face or facial features are. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_21 My sense of self-worth suffers whenever I think I don’t look good. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_4 My self-esteem is unrelated to how I feel about the way my body looks Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_1 When I think I look attractive, I feel good about myself. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
OBJ_WITNESS_8 None ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_7 Other ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_6 Objectifying media ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_5 Degrading sexual gesture ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_4 Body looked at sexually ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_3 Touch/fondled against will ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_2 Sexual remark made about body ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
OBJ_WITNESS_1 Catcalling, wolf-whistling, or car honking ESM EVENT OBJECTIFICATION SITUATION_CONTEXT
RSE_10 I take a positive attitude toward myself. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_9 I can’t respect myself if others don’t respect me. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_35 My self-esteem depends on the opinions others hold of me. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
CSW_23 What others think of me has no effect on what I think about myself Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM