Depressive symptoms diary

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Citation article

Title:
Perceiving social pressure not to feel negative predicts depressive symptoms in daily life.
Authors:
Dejonckheere, E., Bastian, B., Fried, E. I., Murphy, S. C., Kuppens, P.
Year of publication:
2017
Journal name:
Depression and Anxiety
Volume number:
34
Issue number:
9
Page numbers:
836-844
DOI:
https://doi.org/10.1002/da.22653

Measure details

Baseline session:
Yes
Followup session:
No
Study design:
Individuals with elevated depression scores completed this online daily diary study in which they rated their depressive symptoms and perceived social pressure not to feel depressed or anxious for 30 days.
ESM measurement waves:
1
Ethics granting body:
---
Ethics protocol number:
None stated.

Study details

Location:
US
Background information:
A 30-day daily diary study conducted with participants who had elevated levels of depression on the Patient Health questionnaire (PHQ-8).
Language:
English
Setting:
O
Collection platform:
---
Days of ESM data collection:
30
Number of ESM measures per day:
1
Sampling schedule:
End of day
ESM schedule start time:
19:00
ESM schedule end time:
3:00
ESM schedule duration:
8

Sample details

Type of sample:
---
Recruitment information:
MTurkers completed the PHQ, and people above the clinical cut-off were randomly contacted to participate.
Incentives:
Participants were reimbursed $1 for completing the survey each day, receiving an additional $20 at the end of the study if they had completed 25 days or more.
Exclusions:
None

Contact info

Contact:
Egon Dejonckheere
Contact email:
egon.dejonckheere@kuleuven.be
Selection Variable Info Assessment type Constructs
DEP_1 Today, to what extent did you feel sad? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_2 Today, to what extent did you experience a diminished interest or pleasure in activities? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_3 Today, to what extent did you feel tired and fatigued? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_4 Today, to what extent did you feel worthless? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_5 To what extent did you experience trouble sleeping last night? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_6 To what extent did you feel like sleeping today? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_7 Today, to what extent did you experience an increased appetite compared to normal? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_8 Today, to what extent did you experience a decreased appetite compared to normal? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_9 Today, to what extent did your body feel agitated? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_10 Today, to what extent did your body feel slowed down? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
DEP_11 Today, to what extent did you experience problems concentrating or making decisions? ESM DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
ATTEN_1 This is a control item. Please select 7 for this item. ESM ATTENTION_CHECK
RUM_1 Today, to what extent did you focus on your problems? ESM EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RUM_2 Today, to what extent did you focus on your feelings? ESM EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
ANX Today, to what extent did you feel anxious? ESM AFFECT ANXIETY NEGATIVE_AFFECT
ANG Today, to what extent did you feel angry? ESM AFFECT ANGER NEGATIVE_AFFECT
HAP Today, to what extent did you feel happy? ESM AFFECT HAPPINESS POSITIVE_AFFECT
RLX Today, to what extent did you feel relaxed? ESM AFFECT POSITIVE_AFFECT RELAXATION
STR Today, to what extent did you feel stressed? ESM AFFECT NEGATIVE_AFFECT STRESS
ATTEN_2 This is a control item. Please select '2' for this item. ESM ATTENTION_CHECK
SEDAS_1 Today people expected me NOT to feel Depressed or Anxious ESM AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_2 People valued me today, even though I felt Depressed or Anxious ESM AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_3 People were disapproving of my feeling Depressed or Anxious today ESM AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_4 Today people saw me as a failure because I felt Depressed or Anxious ESM AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_5 Today I felt a great deal of pressure from others around me not to feel depressed or anxious ESM AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
POSEV Have you experienced a very positive event today? ESM EVENT POSITIVE_EVENT SITUATION_CONTEXT
NEGEV Have you experienced a very negative event today? ESM EVENT NEGATIVE_EVENT SITUATION_CONTEXT
PLEAS_1 During this experience, how intense was the pleasure? ESM AFFECT_INTENSITY EVENT POSITIVE_EVENT SITUATION_CONTEXT
PLEAS_2 During this experience, how was your mood? ESM AFFECT_INTENSITY EVENT POSITIVE_EVENT SITUATION_CONTEXT
PAIN_1 During this experience, how intense was the pain? ESM EVENT NEGATIVE_EVENT PAIN SITUATION_CONTEXT
PAIN_2 During this experience, how was your mood? ESM AFFECT_INTENSITY EVENT NEGATIVE_EVENT SITUATION_CONTEXT
PHYS Right now, what are you feeling physically? ESM PHYSICAL_HEALTH
SEDAS_1 I think society accepts people who feel Depressed or Anxious as normal Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_2 I think it is socially acceptable to feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_3 Society generally expects people NOT to feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_4 I think that society tends to place a lot of pressure on people NOT to feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_5 I think that society generally disapproves of people who feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_6 Most people would see people who feel Depressed or Anxious as failing in life Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_7 Overall, people in society are very comfortable with those who feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
ATTEN_1 This is a control item. Please select '6' for this item Baseline
SEDAS_8 Generally speaking, other people prefer not to associate with me when I feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_9 I feel a great deal of pressure from others around me not to feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_10 When others see me as Depressed or Anxious they probably think I am a failure Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_11 I think most people around me value me just the same even when I feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_12 Other people expect me NOT to feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
SEDAS_13 People like me less when I feel Depressed or Anxious Baseline AFFECT BELIEF SOCIAL_DESIRABILITY
RSE_1 I feel that I am a person of worth, at least on an equal plane with others. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_2 I feel that I have a number of good qualities. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_3 All in all, I am inclined to feel that I am a failure. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_4 I am able to do things as well as most other people. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_5 I feel I do not have much to be proud of. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_6 I take a positive attitude toward myself. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_7 On the whole, I am satisfied with myself. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_8 I wish I could have more respect for myself. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_9 I certainly feel useless at times. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
RSE_10 At times I think I am no good at all. Baseline SELF SELF_ESTEEM
SWL_1 In most ways my life is close to my ideal. Baseline HEDONIC LIFE_SATISFACTION WELL_BEING
SWL_2 The conditions of my life are excellent. Baseline HEDONIC LIFE_SATISFACTION WELL_BEING
SWL_3 I am satisfied with life. Baseline HEDONIC LIFE_SATISFACTION WELL_BEING
SWL_4 So far I have gotten the important things I want in life. Baseline HEDONIC LIFE_SATISFACTION WELL_BEING
SWL_5 If I could live my life over, I would change almost nothing Baseline HEDONIC LIFE_SATISFACTION WELL_BEING
LSAS_1 Avoid-Telephoning in public Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_2 Avoid-Participating in small groups Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_3 Avoid-Eating in public places Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_4 Avoid-Drinking with others in public places Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_5 Avoid-Talking to people in authority Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_6 Avoid-Acting, performing or giving a talk in front of an audience Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_7 Avoid-Going to a party Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_8 Avoid-Working while being observed Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_9 Avoid-Calling someone you don't know very well Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_10 Avoid-Talking with people you don't know very well Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_11 Avoid-Meeting strangers Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_12 Avoid-Urinating in a public bathroom Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_13 Avoid-Entering a room when others are already seated Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_14 Avoid-Being the centre of attention Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_15 Avoid-Speaking up at a meeting Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_16 Avoid-Taking a test Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_17 Avoid-Expressing disagreement or disapproval to people you don't know very well Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_18 Avoid-Looking at people you don't know very well in the eyes Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_19 Avoid-Giving a report to a group Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_20 Avoid-Trying to pick someone up Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_21 Avoid-Returning goods to a store Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_22 Avoid-Giving a party Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_23 Avoid-Resisting a high pressure salesperson Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_24 Avoid-Writing while being observed Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_25 Fear or Anxiety-Telephoning in public Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_26 Fear or Anxiety-Participating in small groups Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_27 Fear or Anxiety-Eating in public places Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_28 Fear or Anxiety-Drinking with others in public places Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_29 Fear or Anxiety-Talking to people in authority Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_30 Fear or Anxiety-Acting, performing or giving a talk in front of an audience Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_31 Fear or Anxiety-Going to a party Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_32 Fear or Anxiety-Working while being observed Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_33 Fear or Anxiety-Calling someone you don't know very well Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_34 Fear or Anxiety-Talking with people you don't know very well Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_35 Fear or Anxiety-Meeting strangers Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_36 Fear or Anxiety-Urinating in a public bathroom Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_37 Fear or Anxiety-Entering a room when others are already seated Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_38 Fear or Anxiety-Being the centre of attention Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_39 Fear or Anxiety-Speaking up at a meeting Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_40 Fear or Anxiety-Taking a test Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_41 Fear or Anxiety-Expressing disagreement or disapproval to people you don't know very well Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_42 Fear or Anxiety-Looking at people you don't know very well in the eyes Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_43 Fear or Anxiety-Giving a report to a group Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_44 Fear or Anxiety-Trying to pick someone up Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_45 Fear or Anxiety-Returning goods to a store Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_46 Fear or Anxiety-Giving a party Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_47 Fear or Anxiety-Resisting a high pressure salesperson Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
LSAS_48 Fear or Anxiety-Writing while being observed Baseline PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SOCIAL_ANXIETY SYMPTOMS
CESD_1 I was bothered by things that usually don’t bother me. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_2 I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_3 I felt that I could not shake off the blues even with help from my family or friends. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_4 I felt I was just as good as other people. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_5 I had trouble keeping my mind on what I was doing. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_6 I felt depressed. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_7 I felt that everything I did was an effort. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_8 I felt hopeful about the future. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_9 I thought my life has been a failure. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_10 I felt fearful. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_11 My sleep was restless. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_12 I was happy. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_13 I talked less than usual. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_14 I felt lonely. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_15 People were unfriendly. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_16 I enjoyed life. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_17 I had crying spells. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_18 I felt sad. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_19 I felt that people dislike me. Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
CESD_20 I could not get “going.” Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
TIPI_1 Extraverted, enthusiastic. Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
TIPI_2 Critical, quarrelsome. Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_3 Dependable, self-disciplined. Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_4 Anxious, easily upset. Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
TIPI_5 Open to new experiences, complex. Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_6 Reserved, quiet. Baseline EXTRAVERSION PERSONALITY
TIPI_7 Sympathetic, warm. Baseline AGREEABLENESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_8 Disorganized, careless. Baseline CONSCIENTIOUSNESS PERSONALITY
TIPI_9 Calm, emotionally stable. Baseline NEUROTICISM PERSONALITY
TIPI_10 Conventional, uncreative. Baseline OPENNESS PERSONALITY
RRS_1 I think “What am I doing to deserve this?” Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_2 I analyze recent events to try to understand why I am depressed. Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_3 I think “Why do I always react this way?” Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_4 I go away by myself and think about why I feel this way Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_5 I write down what I am thinking and analyze it. Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_6 I think about a recent situation, wishing it had gone better. Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_7 I think “Why do I have problems other people don’t have?” Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_8 I think “Why can’t I handle things better?” Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_9 I analyze my personality to try to understand why I am depressed. Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
RRS_10 I go someplace alone to think about my feelings. Baseline EMOTION_REGULATION RUMINATION STRATEGY
ATTEN_2 This is a test item. Please select 'Never' for this item. Baseline ATTENTION_CHECK
MED_1 Do you currently use any medication(s)? Baseline MEDICATION PHYSICAL_HEALTH
MED_2 Please list the medications you are currently taking and the purpose of use. Baseline MEDICATION PHYSICAL_HEALTH
MDD_1 Do you have a current clinical diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder? Baseline DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
MDD_2 How many major depressive episodes have you experienced? Baseline DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
MDD_3 What was your age when you were first diagnosed? Baseline DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
MANIC Have you ever had a manic episode? Baseline DIAGNOSIS MANIA PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
DEP_1 Has anyone in your family ever suffered from depression? Baseline DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
DEP_2 Who in your family has ever suffered from depression? Baseline DEPRESSION DIAGNOSIS PSYCHOPATHOLOGY
AGE What is your age? Baseline AGE DEMOGRAPHICS
TIMEZONE What timezone do you live in? Baseline
GENDER What is your gender? Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS GENDER
NATION_1 Where were you born? Baseline BIRTH_COUNTRY DEMOGRAPHICS
NATION_2 Where have you lived most of you life? Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS NATIONALITY
RELIG What is your religion? Baseline DEMOGRAPHICS RELIGION
PHQ9_1 Little interest of pleasure in doing things Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_2 Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_3 Trouble falling asleep, or staying asleep too much Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_4 Feeling tired or having little energy Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_5 Poor appetite or overeating Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_6 Feeling bad about yourself - or that you are a failure or have let yourself or your family down Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_7 Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_8 Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed. Or the opposite - being so fidgety or restless that you have been moving around a lot more than usual Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS
PHQ9_9 Thoughts that you would be better off dead or of hurting yourself in some way Baseline DEPRESSION PSYCHOPATHOLOGY SYMPTOMS